The task of accounting of costs for SMEs is twofold. On the one hand, it must comply with minimum standards of traditional cost accounting, the valuation of inventories, the determination of production time (machined, conversion, worker, between others), the quantification of overheads, depreciation criteria, capitalization of maintenance expenses and other aspects. But on the other hand, it also needs to adopt new methodologies in cost accounting are being imposed on management accounting as a result of the intensification of competition .. Among these is the implementation of activity based costing system which identifies the activities (processes) that need to execute to make the products and pay for these activities (Collins, 1991), which makes it possible to carry out the re-engineering of processes to eliminate those activities that add no value to the product. As in the case of the management of human resources, management costs, rather than creating units and allocating resources to store information activities, challenges SMEs are few conceptual and paradigmatic. This is the best methodology to use in daily practice operations and not to delegate tasks concerning the issue of costs in an internal drive or an external agency. To this must be added the absence of a proactive management leadership, innovative, qualified in accordance with the managerial expertise that this requires.
It also proffers as a major obstacle, the dissociation of SMEs with current government programs, wasting the opportunities that exist with the new foreign trade policy, which provides the opportunity to enter new foreign markets.