Shortly after the civil war in the position have been important changes Rossosh. Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR January 4, 1923 a special resolution defined the new administrative boundaries of districts of Voronezh province. Were Alexis and eliminated Korotoyaksky counties, and formed a new Rossoshanskij County. In this regard, Rossosh was converted from the village to the city and county center. Rossosh county town remained until the spring of 1928.
March 22 Bureau of the Central Executive Committee adopted a decree on the organization of the Central Black Earth region in the former Voronezh, Kursk, Orel and Tambov regions. And now Rossosh – the center of one of the 11 districts. On November 1, in first published the newspaper "Voice of the poor." In Rossoshanskij District began the process of Ukrainization. The official language of institutions, training schools, newspaper and all current information translated into Ukrainian. But for a quick transition into the Ukrainian language in the district had neither the means nor the experts. From 1926 to 1932 in the city were opened the factory – the factory seven-year, a school for peasant youth, agropedtehnikum, Medical School, and ptitsetehnikum ptitseinstitut. In 1928, the regional hospital is built, and a year later, construction of health clinics. In 1930, construction began on a large Rossosh poultry.
Another major urban construction project at this time was brickyard. In 1937, in the vicinity of Rossosh open base in horticulture science – Research Institute of the IV Michurin. Subsequently, the base was converted into Rossoshanskij fruit – berry trial station. On the morning of July 7, 1942 the city entered the German tanks. Six months and nine days, held sway in Rossosh occupants. In early September, 294 th German Infantry Division, take up defensive positions along the right bank of the Don north of New Kalitva, changed the division of the Italian Alpine Corps, whose headquarters is located in Rossosh. Finally, the city was liberated Rossosh January 16, 1943. Rossosh – the town where I studied, worked and started to create a poet AT Prasolov, MP Writer Shevchenko, members of the Union of Artists, BA Goncharov and BB Ponomarenko, a school teacher – artist VG Zimbalist. Important role in establishing the latter played the oldest Rossoshanskij artist, a graduate of the All-Russian FP Bass. Of the city's architectural monuments of note printing plant building, Alexander Nevsky tower, built in 1876, the project architect Burenina Moscow. Since 1988, steel Rossosh actively visited by foreign tourists, especially from Italy. They brought here the memories of the tragic days of the last war, during which the fascist government of Italy has sent to Russia of its soldiers to certain death. In a result of visits have strengthened the friendly relations and rossoshantsev veterans – Alpines. National Association of Alpine shooters in the means of their veteran free built in Rossosh kindergarten in memory of Russian and Italian guys who have laid down their lives on the battlefield.