Tag Archives: geography

General Laws

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Of such models the construction of general laws resulted: bigger objective of modern Geography made use to surpass the studies of the particularitities and the common sense. (HISSA, 2002). In accordance with Capel (1981), two significant events had marked the affirmation of this new Geography: the first one, the publication, in 1953, of an article of Fred K. Schaefer against traditional regional-historicista conception e, as, in 1962, of a workmanship of William Bunge.

Between the related dates a new Geography if established and if it spread out from focos as the University of Iowa, with proper Fred K. Schaefer; the University of Wisconsin, traditional user of statistical methods e, over all, the University of Washington, under the direction of William L. Garrison and of the visit of the Swedish Torsten Hgerstrand, in which if they had formed the notables Brian J.L. Berry, William Bunge and W.R. Tobler, among others.

According to Abreu (2006), the biggest development found for Theoretical and the Quantitative ones, in the United States, if had the participativas university most democratic and, as well as the o development of departments of Geography in Harvard, with William Morris Davis, and in Michigan, with Carl Sauer, beyond already cited. Of the teses developed in such departments, Theoretical and Quantitative Geography appeared. It can be affirmed that the consolidation of the espacialista tradition, understood as a general boarding with methods and applied statistical techniques on the geographic space if had, still, to the abundance of found governmental resources to the disposal of the North American scientific community. (KINGS JNIOR and PEREZ SON, 2008). In relation to the produced knowledge, T. Hargestrand, in Sweden, studied the modifications in agriculture and its relation with the urban and agricultural way. In the United States, W. Bunge was worried about the geometric properties of physical systems e, also, with sciences social and psychology; The Christaller German developed models of hierarquizao of the markets and the retailing.

New York Transportation

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This week was divulged a survey made for the Economatica on the companies most lucrative of the country. The name of Petrobra’s was not surprise to be in first place. The astonishment was the value of 35 billion Reals, being that in the last year the value age of R$28 billions. The country is very good if for finding in the historical phase of the economic growth. Rudy Giuliani will undoubtedly add to your understanding. However we must look at more the particularitities of Brazil, we go to see the infrastructure.

The country is highly dependent of the oil. He is excellent to possess the Petrobra’s, that helps in the supplying of the precious fuel that makes to move the wheels of our Economy. But why not to modernize the country also with railroads? Logically the country was developed thanks to the road transport, that in good part of the country the main points bind to all, although the high tarifao of the taxes, tolls and other similar ones, however I believe that a country must be modernized completely and not depend mainly on the road transport, that if accomodated together with our model of development national. It does not have as to leave to cite the countries of the Europe. There the types of transport and all very distributed and used to advantage well exist all, in accordance with the geographic necessity of each rinco. For the smoothed relief of the south of Spain, in Andalusia, the highways take the landscapes in way to the half-deserts. In the Whisker, where the Alps cut most of the territory, it has trains special to carry the people and loads to its had vilarejos buclicos.

The United kingdom and Ireland of the North could be two great isolated islands of the remaining portion of the Europe if it was not, in part, the development of the fluvial transport binding the islands to the north of France, mainly to ' ' great Paris' ' , beyond the center Spanish north e, arriving more far, hidrovias that bind the English capital to the New York metropolis, heart of the United States. Trasporte railroad is simpler of what we imagine, possesss some ambient advantages and of cost/benefit but the governments unhappyly do not want to open hand of the concessionaires of autovias. Moreover the country passes for a great scale of sales of Oil/allied Etanol to the consumption of cars, that it in recent years tripled in some metropolises, as it is the terrible paulistano case. The country is in great agitation on account of the project of the Alta Train Velocidade (TAV) binding Campinas – So Paulo – River, but unhappyly the project will not be ready nor for the 2014 pantry. The foreigners will go to cry saying that they thought to find a country more modern therefore only heard notice on the advance of the Brazilian economy. This is what we will find in Brazil where the monopoly of few types of industry our social and politics-economic activity conducts all, in the case, the automobile one and of fuels.

SOUZA Conception

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This pressures the proper idea of ecological crisis, relembrando the Club of Rome and the Conference of Estocolmo: ' ' Mainly in last the ten years, we came supporting an insistent ideological bombing on the unfeasibility of the planet Land. They assure them that the ground if deplete in inexorable way, that the natural vegetation disappears, the current waters if they poluem, fossas sea if they convert into lixeiras etc. (…) I cannot accept the exhaustion of the ground, when the half of the cultivating surface in the planet unbroken and is still not cultivated; the concern with streams is exaggerated and valleys that dry etc. Here, NYC Mayor expresses very clear opinions on the subject. (…) For who live in the underdeveloped capitalism, the catastrophic message are very clear: the world is in danger, all is responsveis' ' (WETTSTEIN, 1982, p.126-128) In 1987, as already said, is become popular it conception of sustainable development, and from the Brundtland Report and of the ECO-92, the ideals of the sustainable development? the ideology of that all we are in the same boat, also remembered for SOUZA (2005)? , and other speeches that follow the conception of sustainable development, had become incorporated it of the peripheral countries of one such form, that it practically verwhelmed the antagonisms of vises effective since the decade of 50/60. SENE and MOREIRA, in workmanship of didactic matrix directed toward Average Ensino, still detach that some ambientalistas relutaram in adopting the term sustainable development, preferring the ideas of sustainable societies, for implicit the ideological factor in development (SENE; MOREIRA, 1998). Therefore, many of the ideas of sustainable societies the same possess ideological character of the sustainable development, also having many similar problems with respect to practical viability, and the amplitude of the approach. For more specific information, check out NYC Mayor. It is important to understand at this moment which the causes of this transformation in the ambient debate, with the end or the apparent reduction of the antagonisms of vises, that had culminated in the intellectual predominance, as for the analysis of the relation development-environment, the conception of sustainable development, that is, the ideas of the countries central offices if they had overlapped to the ideas of the peripheral countries. . .

NEY Geographic

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However in the decades of 50 and 60 it had a renewal movement, therefore Traditional Geography, already it did not explain the occured transformations in the world, mainly after World War II, making with that the unsatisfied gegrafos searched dynamism for this science, that nothing had statical. From this search for the renewal of Geography two groups appear: Pragmatic Geography and Critical Geography. Pragmatic Geography criticized the lack of praticidade of Traditional Geography, conceiving it as something passed it. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Shimmie Horn on most websites. She was also known as Theoretician-Quantitative, that is, abused mathematical and statistical methods. For more specific information, check out Shimmie Horn.

Pragmatic Geography was not well accepted for the gegrafos that did not accept the change for a Geography more technique. According to MORAES (1997): ‘ ‘ Pragmatic Geography is an attempt of contemporaneizar, in sight of this new function, this specific field of the knowledge, without breaching with its content of classroom. Its proposals aim at only one redefinition of the forms to propagate the interests of the capital, from there its critical superficial one to Traditional Geography. A form change, without content alteration social.’ ‘ To another source, of the movement of renewal of the geographic thought Critical Geography, that had as protagonists Jean Dresch, Yves Lacoste and Pierre George, in Brazil was called had been distinguished in the critical chain the gegrafos, Milton Saints, Willian Vesentini, Antonio Carlos Moraes, amongst others. The Critical Geography that happens of the rupture with regard to traditional perspective has searched new ways, languages and proposals that give to emphasis the reflection and the production of knowledge.

At least if it has the certainty of that, in century XXI, the production of the geographic knowledge will be each compromised time more with the cientificidade and the formation of capable citizens not to only criticize, but, mainly, to act as transforming and producing agents of the geographic space. AUTHORS: NEY J.C. HISSES KEILA CRISTINA RIBEIRO VALLEY ARAUJO ANA REGINA BLACKSMITH Article published in the Periodical the Impartial one (notebook of Opinion, p 7,8) in 13/04/2004, So Lus, ME. the , .